In spite of a decline of wars between countries, civil conflicts have been increasing in the recent past. Violent conflict still affects many regions in the world. In most of these conflicts, women are disproportionately affected by the consequences. These do not just include the direct consequences like the loss of life and property or conflict-related sexual violence, but also the more indirect and long-term consequences. UN Women states that conflict significantly increases malnutrition rates for women and more than doubles the risk of girls not going to school compared non-conflict settings. Additionally, 60% of preventable maternal deaths occur in situations of conflict. But women are not just victims of conflict, they may also act as perpetrators as well as peace-makers. So how exactly does conflict impact on women and girls? What are women’s active and passive roles in conflict? How does the changing nature of conflict and the increasingly asymmetric nature of warfare affect these roles? What can be done to protect women in conflict? How can a stronger voice and contribution of women in peace-building be achieved?